Body Position, Hormones, and Facial Emotion (#226)
How to Cite this Report
APA StyleChristopher Koch and Michael Broughal. Body Position, Hormones, and Facial Emotion. (2015, July 15). Retrieved 19:22, April 27, 2017 from http://www.PsychFileDrawer.org/replication.php?attempt=MjI2
MLA Style"Body Position, Hormones, and Facial Emotion" Christopher Koch and Michael Broughal. 15 Jul 2015 02:48 27 Apr 2017, 19:22 <http://www.PsychFileDrawer.org/replication.php?attempt=MjI2>
MHRA Style'Body Position, Hormones, and Facial Emotion', Christopher Koch and Michael Broughal, , 15 July 2015 02:48 <http://www.PsychFileDrawer.org/replication.php?attempt=MjI2> [accessed 27 April 2017]
Chicago Style"Body Position, Hormones, and Facial Emotion", Christopher Koch and Michael Broughal, , http://www.PsychFileDrawer.org/replication.php?attempt=MjI2 (accessed April 27, 2017)
CBE/CSE StyleBody Position, Hormones, and Facial Emotion [Internet]. Christopher Koch and Michael Broughal; 2015 Jul 15, 02:48 [cited 2017 Apr 27]. Available from: http://www.PsychFileDrawer.org/replication.php?attempt=MjI2
|Reference to Original Report of Finding||Carney, D. R., Cuddy, A. J., & Yap, A. J. (2010). Power posing: Brief nonverbal displays affect neuroendocrine levels and risk tolerance. Psychological Science, 21, 1363-1368.|
|Title||Body Position, Hormones, and Facial Emotion|
|If the original article contained multiple experiments, which one did you attempt to replicate? e.g., you might respond 'Study 1' or 'Experiment 4'.|
|Link to PDF of Original Report||View Article|
|Brief Statement of Original Result||Carney, Cuddy, and Yap (2010) found that high-power postures increased testosterone and decreased cortisol levels while low-power postures increased cortisol and decreased testosterone levels.|
|Type of Replication Attempted||Fairly Direct Replication|
|Result Type||Failure to Replicate|
|Number of Subjects||55|
|Number of Subjects in Original Study||42|
|Year in which Replication Attempt was Made||2011|
|Name of Investigators (Real Names Required)||Christopher Koch and Michael Broughal|
|Detailed Description of Method/Results||
Fifty-five psychology students volunteered to participate in the experiment for class credit. Eighteen were randomly assigned into the expansive condition, 18 into the control condition, and 19 into the contractive condition.
A 4 (Emotions: anger, disgust, fear, surprise) x 3 (Poses: expansive, normal, contractive) x 2 (Time: pre and post) mixed design was used. Dependent variables included testosterone and cortisol levels as well as response time and percent correct.
Pictures of facial expressions were taken from the Ekman picture databases. Emotions were selected based on similarity to each other and the proposed relationship to body position. Response times were recorded with a voice key using SuperLab 4.0. Testosterone and cortisol levels were measured using a saliva test performed by a local diagnostic laboratory.
The experiment was conducted in the afternoon (12:00 p.m.–6:00 p.m.) to control for diurnal rhythms in hormones. Saliva samples were taken approximately 5 min after arrival and before posing in a particular posture. Saliva samples were taken again approximately 10-12 min after posing during the experimental trials.
A standard salivary-hormone collection procedure, developed by Dickerson and Kemeny (2004) and Schultheiss and Stanton (2009) was followed. Participants did not eat, drink, or brush their teeth for at least 1 hr prior to the experimental session. Participants rinsed their mouths with water and chewed a piece of sugar free Trident Original Flavor gum for 3 min to stimulate salivation. Approximately 1.5 ml of saliva was obtained through a straw into a sterile microtubule. Samples were immediately frozen to avoid hormone degradation. Samples were delivered to the laboratory for analysis within 2 weeks of collection.
Participants were shown either an aggressive, passive, or normal posture depending upon the experimental condition (Blanchard and Shiffar, 2010). After assuming the pose, participants were shown a series of facial expressions. The expressed emotions were verbally identified. Response times were recorded with a voice key to keep participants' hands free while posing. Responses were recorded with a digital recording device in order to determine accuracy.
Carney, Cuddy, and Yap (2010) found that expansive positions increase testosterone levels and contractive positions increase cortisol levels. However, no differences in pre- and post-levels of testosterone or cortisol were across poses. Changes in testosterone ranged from 0.33 (SD = 12.67) to 3.00 (SD = 9.83). Changes in cortisol ranged from 0.04 (SD = 0.73) to 0.32 (SD = 1.21).
There were no overall effects of emotion across poses on RT and accuracy rate. However, a separate analysis comparing angry and fearful faces, the emotions most closely associated with the postures manipulated in the experiment, produced a significant effect of posture (F(2, 52) = 3.18, p < .05) and emotion (F(1, 52) = 11.70, p < .001). Accuracy rates were higher for angry faces compared to fearful faces. Interestingly, both the expansive and contractive postures were associated with lower accuracy rates. However, these differences were largely due to decreased accuracy for identifying fear (Figure 1).
|Any Known Methodological Differences |
(between original and present study)?
|The poses and procedure for collecting the saliva samples were identical to the original study. However, a facial emotion task was included in this study. Although the task did not change the amount of time between the pre- and post-saliva tests, it did increase the amount of time a pose was maintained from 2-3 minutes to 10-12 minutes.|
|Email of Investigator|
|Name of individuals who |
actually carried out the project
|Christopher Koch and Michael Broughal|
|Location of Project||Cognition Lab, Villa Academic Center, George Fox University|
|Characteristics of Subjects |
(subject pool, paid, etc.)
|University students from subject pool|
|Where did these subjects reside?||United States|
|Was this a Class Project?||No|
|Further Details of Results as pdf||
|Email of Original Investigator|
|Quantitive Information||Figures 3 and 4 in Carney, Cuddy, and Yap (2010) show mean changes (+/- 1 SEM) in testosterone and cortisol levels between power poses. Similar figures for the present study are included in the pdf.|
|I have complied with ethical standards for experimentation on human beings and, if necessary, have obtained appropriate permission from an Institutional Review Board or other oversight group.|
|TAG: Attention TAG: JDM TAG: Language TAG: Learning TAG: Memory TAG: Perception TAG: Performance TAG: Problem Solving TAG: Social Cognition TAG: Social Psychology TAG: Thinking|
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