Showering and Loneliness: U of T Replication (#187)

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APA Style

Jason D. Ferrell, Samuel D. Gosling, and M. Brent Donnellan. Showering and Loneliness: U of T Replication. (2014, April 30). Retrieved 22:42, February 22, 2018 from

MLA Style

"Showering and Loneliness: U of T Replication" Jason D. Ferrell, Samuel D. Gosling, and M. Brent Donnellan. 30 Apr 2014 14:30 22 Feb 2018, 22:42 <>

MHRA Style

'Showering and Loneliness: U of T Replication', Jason D. Ferrell, Samuel D. Gosling, and M. Brent Donnellan, , 30 April 2014 14:30 <> [accessed 22 February 2018]

Chicago Style

"Showering and Loneliness: U of T Replication", Jason D. Ferrell, Samuel D. Gosling, and M. Brent Donnellan, , (accessed February 22, 2018)


Showering and Loneliness: U of T Replication [Internet]. Jason D. Ferrell, Samuel D. Gosling, and M. Brent Donnellan; 2014 Apr 30, 14:30 [cited 2018 Feb 22]. Available from:

Reference to Original Report of Finding Bargh, J. A., & Shalev, I. (2012). The substitutability of physical and social warmth in daily life. Emotion, 12, 154-162.
Title Showering and Loneliness: U of T Replication
If the original article contained multiple experiments, which one did you attempt to replicate? e.g., you might respond 'Study 1' or 'Experiment 4'. Study 1a
Link to PDF of Original ReportView Article
Brief Statement of Original Result The authors predicted that trait loneliness would be positively associated with warmer showers and baths. They tested this prediction with a correlational study (N = 51 college students). Three showering/bathing items were averaged to form a composite measure labeled “Physical Warmth Extraction.” The composite was correlated with Loneliness (r=.57, p<.05). The correlation for the item about warm water temperatures was not reliably different from zero using p<.05(r=.26, p=.07).
Type of Replication Attempted Highly Direct Replication
Result Type Failure to Replicate
Difference? Not Applicable
Number of Subjects 365
Number of Subjects in Original Study 51
Year in which Replication Attempt was Made 2013
Name of Investigators (Real Names Required) Jason D. Ferrell, Samuel D. Gosling, and M. Brent Donnellan
Detailed Description of Method/Results Participants were 365 college students who received course credit as part of a large Introductory Psychology course at the University of Texas, Austin during the Fall Semester of 2013 (64.5% women; 93.1% of participants were between the ages of 17 and 21 and only 2.3% were 26 or older). Showering/Loneliness measures were taken from Bargh and Shalev (2012). Loneliness was assessed using the 3 item loneliness scale developed by Hughes et al. (2004) based on the Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell et al., 1980) using a 4-point scale (1=Never to 4=Often). The loneliness scale and showering/bathing items were administered approximately 1 week apart. The Physical Warmth index was created by standardizing the three bathing/showering items and averaging them into a composite after the frequency and temperature items were reverse coded so that higher scores indicate more frequent baths/showers and warmer baths/showers (alpha = .03).

There was no evidence for an association between loneliness (M = 2.56; SD = .80, alpha = .85) and the Physical Warmth Index (r = -.03, p = .535, n = 365; 95% CI = -.14 to .07). The hypothesis relevant correlation between the water temperature item and the loneliness scale was not statistically distinguishable from zero (r = -.08, p = .141, n = 365, 95% CI = -.18 to .03).

These results generally mimic the results reported in Donnellan et al. (in press) and Donnellan and Lucas (2014, PFD). However, these results do not replicate the correlation between water temperature and trait loneliness reported in Study 1a of Bargh and Shalev (2012).

These data were collected by independent investigators distinct from the Bargh and Shalev (2012) and Donnellan et al. (in press) investigative teams and thus add potentially important new data to the literature. However, Brent Donnellan also analyzed these data and prepared this report.

Any Known Methodological Differences
(between original and present study)?
Participants were from different universities. Original data were collected in-person outside of dining halls. The measure of loneliness was different but previous work by Hughes et al. (2004) indicated that the short scale was strongly associated the Revised UCLA scale (r = .82, n = 299).
Email of Investigator
Name of individuals who
actually carried out the project
Collected Data: Jason D. Ferrell and Samuel D. Gosling. Analyzed Data:Jason D. Ferrell, Samuel D. Gosling, and M. Brent Donnellan. Prepared Report: M. Brent Donnellan
Location of ProjectU of Texas, Austin in 2013
Characteristics of Subjects
(subject pool, paid, etc.)
Introductory Psychology Students
Where did these subjects reside?United States
Was this a Class Project?No
Further Details of Results as pdf
Additional Comments
Email of Original Investigator
Quantitive Information Composite original: r = .57 (95% CI: .35 to .73). U of T replication: r = -.03 (95% CI = -.14 to .07). There was no overlap in the CIs and the correlations were significantly different (z = 4.43, p < .001). The correlations involving the warmth items are also significantly different (z = 2.235 p = .03)\r\n
I have complied with ethical standards for experimentation on human beings and, if necessary, have obtained appropriate permission from an Institutional Review Board or other oversight group.
TAG: Attention TAG: JDM TAG: Language TAG: Learning TAG: Memory TAG: Perception TAG: Performance TAG: Problem Solving TAG: Social Cognition TAG: Social Psychology TAG: Thinking

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