Failed replication to prime intelligent behavior. (#124)

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APA Style

Andreas Eder, Clarissa Leipert, Jochen Musch, & Karl-Christoph Klauer. Failed replication to prime intelligent behavior.. (2012, August 10). Retrieved 13:10, January 16, 2018 from

MLA Style

"Failed replication to prime intelligent behavior." Andreas Eder, Clarissa Leipert, Jochen Musch, & Karl-Christoph Klauer. 10 Aug 2012 10:04 16 Jan 2018, 13:10 <>

MHRA Style

'Failed replication to prime intelligent behavior.', Andreas Eder, Clarissa Leipert, Jochen Musch, & Karl-Christoph Klauer, , 10 August 2012 10:04 <> [accessed 16 January 2018]

Chicago Style

"Failed replication to prime intelligent behavior.", Andreas Eder, Clarissa Leipert, Jochen Musch, & Karl-Christoph Klauer, , (accessed January 16, 2018)


Failed replication to prime intelligent behavior. [Internet]. Andreas Eder, Clarissa Leipert, Jochen Musch, & Karl-Christoph Klauer; 2012 Aug 10, 10:04 [cited 2018 Jan 16]. Available from:

Reference to Original Report of Finding Dijksterhuis, A., & van Knippenberg, A. (1998). The relation between perception and behavior, or how to win a game of Trivial Pursuit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 865-877.
Title Failed replication to prime intelligent behavior.
If the original article contained multiple experiments, which one did you attempt to replicate? e.g., you might respond 'Study 1' or 'Experiment 4'. Mix of Exp 1 & 3
Link to PDF of Original Report
Brief Statement of Original Result Priming the stereotype of professors increased performance in a general knowledge test (Trivial Pursuit Game), whereas priming the stereotype of soccer hooligans reduced performance in the knowledge test.
Type of Replication Attempted Fairly Direct Replication
Result Type Failure to Replicate
Difference? Same Direction, 0.27
Number of Subjects 128
Number of Subjects in Original Study 58
Year in which Replication Attempt was Made 2001
Name of Investigators (Real Names Required) Andreas Eder, Clarissa Leipert, Jochen Musch, & Karl-Christoph Klauer
Detailed Description of Method/Results Study goal:
The study examined whether a priming of intelligent behavior is mediated by changes in achievement motivation.

UV: Stereotype priming of professors or hooligans (between-factor)
AV 1: general knowledge test
AV 2: explicit motivation measure
AV 3: implicit motivation measure
Counterbalanced factors (completely orthogonalized): (1) gender of participant, (2) gender of experimenter, (2) order of the motivation measures (LMT first vs IAT first)

First, participants were primed with the stereotype of professors or the stereotype of hooligans by writing down attributes of a typical professor or hooligan on a sheet of paper (duration: 5 minutes). Then, participants answered 40 questions of a computerized knowledge test (items were pretested for medium difficulty). Finally, participants completed an explicit measure of achievement motivation (Leistungsmotivationstest, Petermann & Zielinski,1979) and an implicit measure of achievement motivation (Implicit Association Test; Brunstein & Schmitt, 2004). All measures were completed on a computer.

(1) Increased performance in the general knowledge test after priming with professors compared to the hooligan priming condition.
(2) Mediation of this effect by an increased (reduced) achievement motivation in the professor (hooligan) prime condition.

- The number of correct items was numerically higher after a priming of the stereotype of the professor (M = 18.3, SD = 6.3) than after a priming of the stereotype of a soccer hooligan (M = 17.1, SD = 5.5). The group difference was however far from statistical significance, t(126) = 1.11, p = .27.
- No differences in the achievement motivation scores between the priming groups.
Any Known Methodological Differences
(between original and present study)?
In the original study, knowledge performance after a stereotype priming of professors (Study 1) or hooligans (Study 3) was contrasted with performance in a neutral priming condition (using the stereotype of a secretary) or performance in a no-prime condition. In our study, priming the stereotype of professors was contrasted with priming the stereotype of hooligans. Both stereotypes have produced opposite effects in the original study. Contrasting conditions with a professor priming versus a hooligan priming should thus have increased the effect size, if anything. Additional differences in the study procedure: - Priming duration (original: 2, 5, or 9 min -> effect size increased with priming duration; present study: 5 min) - Number of items in the knowledge test (original: 42-60 items; present study: 40 items)
Email of Investigator
Name of individuals who
actually carried out the project
Andreas Eder (experimenter + analysis), Clarissa Leipert (experimenter + analysis), Jochen Musch (analysis)
Location of ProjectDepartment of Psychology, University of Bonn
Characteristics of Subjects
(subject pool, paid, etc.)
University students from subject pool
Where did these subjects reside?Germany
Was this a Class Project?No
Further Details of Results as pdf
Additional Comments
Email of Original Investigator
Quantitive Information
I have complied with ethical standards for experimentation on human beings and, if necessary, have obtained appropriate permission from an Institutional Review Board or other oversight group.
TAG: Attention TAG: JDM TAG: Language TAG: Learning TAG: Memory TAG: Perception TAG: Performance TAG: Problem Solving TAG: Social Cognition TAG: Social Psychology TAG: Thinking

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